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The Roman Empire the Empire of the Edomite

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Archaeologists mainly took copper samples from Timna Valley and Faynan in Jordan’s Arava valley dated to 1300-800 BC.

The Edomites first established a kingdom ("Edom") in the southern area of modern-day Jordan and later migrated into the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah ("Idumea", modern-day Mount Hebron) when Judah was first weakened and then destroyed by the Babylonians in the 6th century BC.Perhaps referencing this familial connection, the Old Testament commands: Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; for he is thy brother.

During the Maccabean wars, the Edomites were subjugated by the Jews and forced to convert to Judaism.Possibilities for further reconciliation were dashed with the Jews' defeat in the Jewish-Roman Wars, after which Edom also ceased to exist. The Idumeans are Nabateans, but owing to a sedition they were banished from there, joined the Judeans and shared the same customs with them. The Edomite people were a Semitic-speaking tribal group inhabiting the Negev Desert and the Arabah valley of what is now southern Dead Sea and adjacent Jordan. We pointed out that Esau-Edom in addition to the small Idumean entity southeast of Israel also established kingdoms elsewhere.

Epigraphical evidence suggests that the national god of Edom was Qaus (קוס) (also known as 'Qaush', 'Kaush', 'Kaus', 'Kos' or 'Qaws'), since Qaus is invoked in the blessing formula in letters and appear in personal names found in ancient Edom. Archaeological investigation has shown that the nation flourished between the 13th and the 8th centuries BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians.

In a voice as rich as it is recognized, James Earl Jones lends his narrative talents to the King James Version of the New Testament. Because they were close relatives, the Israelites were forbidden to hate the Edomites (Deuteronomy 23:7). One of the ancient trade routes, the King’s Highway (Numbers 20:17) passed through Edom, and when the Israelites requested permission to use the route on their exodus from Egypt, they were rejected by force. Hebron had been occupied by Edomites escaping from Arab pressure, while the tiny remainder north of Hebron had passed under the control of the governor of Samaria.

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